Dhanwal DK, Dennison EM, Harvey NC, Cooper C. Epidemiology of hip fracture: worldwide geographic variation. Indian J Orthop. 2011;45(1):15–22.
Veronese N, Maggi S. Epidemiology and social costs of hip fracture. Injury. 2018;49(8):1458–60.
Jennison T, Brinsden M. Fracture admission trends in England over a ten-year period. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2019;101(3):208–14.
Peraza-Delgado A, Sánchez-Gómez MB, Gómez-Salgado J, Romero-Martín M, Novo-Muñoz M, Duarte-Clíments G. Non-pharmacological interventions towards preventing the triad osteoporosis-falls risk-hip fracture, in population older than 65. Scoping Review. J Clin Med. 2020;9(8):2329.
Williamson S, Landeiro F, McConnell T, Fulford-Smith L, Javaid MK, Judge A, et al. Costs of fragility hip fractures globally: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(10):2791–800.
Tucker KL. Vegetarian diets and bone status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(Suppl 1):329s–35s.
Iguacel I, Miguel-Berges ML, Gómez-Bruton A, Moreno LA, Julián C. Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2019;77(1):1–18.
Tong TYN, Appleby PN, Armstrong MEG, Fensom GK, Knuppel A, Papier K, et al. Vegetarian and vegan diets and risks of total and site-specific fractures: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study. BMC Med. 2020;18(1):353.
Thorpe DL, Beeson WL, Knutsen R, Fraser GE, Knutsen SF. Dietary patterns and hip fracture in the Adventist Health Study 2: combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation mitigate increased hip fracture risk among vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2021;114(2):488–95.
Le LT, Sabaté J. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts. Nutrients. 2014;6(6):2131–47.
Foods Standards Agency. National diet and nutrition survey: headline results from Years 1 and 2 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2009/2009 – 2009/10). 2012.
Benson A, Irdam D, Bulceag I, Barber T, Draper A. Food and you survey: wave 5 secondary analysis: the current food landscape across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Foods Standards Agency; 2019.
Shridhar K, Dhillon PK, Bowen L, Kinra S, Bharathi AV, Prabhakaran D, et al. Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets–the Indian Migration Study (IMS). Nutr J. 2014;13:55.
Lee Y, Park K. Adherence to a vegetarian diet and diabetes risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2017;9(6):603.
Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A, Sofi F. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(17):3640–9.
Rosi A, Mena P, Pellegrini N, Turroni S, Neviani E, Ferrocino I, et al. Environmental impact of omnivorous, ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and vegan diet. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):6105.
Fresán U, Sabaté J. Vegetarian diets: planetary health and its alignment with human health. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(Suppl_4):S380–s8.
Luo S, Li Y, Luo H, Yin X, Lin du R, Zhao K, et al. Increased intake of vegetables, but not fruits, may be associated with reduced risk of hip fracture: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19783.
Brondani JE, Comim FV, Flores LM, Martini LA, Premaor MO. Fruit and vegetable intake and bones: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(5):e0217223.
Webster J, Rycroft CE, Greenwood DC, Cade JE. Dietary risk factors for hip fracture in adults: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One. 2021;16(11):e0259144.
Lousuebsakul-Matthews V, Thorpe DL, Knutsen R, Beeson WL, Fraser GE, Knutsen SF. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17(10):2333–43.
Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ. EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr. 2003;6(3):259–69.
Bradbury KE, Tong TYN, Key TJ. Dietary intake of high-protein foods and other major foods in meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans in UK Biobank. Nutrients. 2017;9(12):1317.
Armstrong ME, Cairns BJ, Banks E, Green J, Reeves GK, Beral V. Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. Bone. 2012;50(6):1394–400.
Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(4):943–50.
Tong TY, Key TJ, Sobiecki JG, Bradbury KE. Anthropometric and physiologic characteristics in white and British Indian vegetarians and nonvegetarians in the UK Biobank. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;107(6):909–20.
Cade JE, Burley VJ, Alwan NA, Hutchinson J, Hancock N, Morris MA, et al. Cohort profile: the UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS). Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46(2):e11.
Lachat C, Hawwash D, Ocké MC, Berg C, Forsum E, Hörnell A, et al. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): an extension of the STROBE Statement. PLoS Med. 2016;13(6):e1002036.
Rada-Fernandez de Jauregui D, Evans CEL, Jones P, Greenwood DC, Hancock N, Cade JE. Common dietary patterns and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: analysis from the United Kingdom Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS). Int J Cancer. 2018;143(4):773–81.
Korn EL, Graubard BI, Midthune D. Time-to-event analysis of longitudinal follow-up of a survey: choice of the time-scale. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(1):72–80.
Tennant PWG, Murray EJ, Arnold KF, Berrie L, Fox MP, Gadd SC, et al. Use of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to identify confounders in applied health research: review and recommendations. Int J Epidemiol. 2021;50(2):620–32.
Benetos IS, Babis GC, Zoubos AB, Benetou V, Soucacos PN. Factors affecting the risk of hip fractures. Injury. 2007;38(7):735–44.
Malmir H, Saneei P, Larijani B, Esmaillzadeh A. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in relation to bone mineral density and risk of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Nutr. 2018;57(6):2147–60.
Panahande B, Sadeghi A, Parohan M. Alternative healthy eating index and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2019;32(1):98–107.
Fabiani R, Naldini G, Chiavarini M. Dietary patterns in relation to low bone mineral density and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Adv Nutr (Bethesda). 2019;10(2):219–36.
Barnard ND, Levin SM, Yokoyama Y. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(6):954–69.
Kim SH, Yi SW, Yi JJ, Kim YM, Won YJ. Association between body mass index and the risk of hip fracture by sex and age: a prospective cohort study. J Bone Miner Res. 2018;33(9):1603–11.
Gonnelli S, Caffarelli C, Nuti R. Obesity and fracture risk. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2014;11(1):9–14.
Hayes WC, Myers ER, Morris JN, Gerhart TN, Yett HS, Lipsitz LA. Impact near the hip dominates fracture risk in elderly nursing home residents who fall. Calcif Tissue Int. 1993;52(3):192–8.
Kim KH, Lee JH, Lim EJ. Weak psoas and spine extensors potentially predispose to hip fracture. Hip Int. 2021;31(3):430–4.
Wu AM, Sun XL, Lv QB, Zhou Y, Xia DD, Xu HZ, et al. The relationship between dietary protein consumption and risk of fracture: a subgroup and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8.
Bailey RL, van Wijngaarden JP. The role of B-vitamins in bone health and disease in older adults. Curr. 2015;13(4):256–61.
British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition requirements. 2021. [Available from: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/media/nmmewdug/nutrition-requirements.pdf].
Yao P, Bennett D, Mafham M, Lin X, Chen Z, Armitage J, et al. Vitamin D and calcium for the prevention of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(12):e1917789.
Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ. The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2002;11(11):1441–8.
Yuan S, Wan ZH, Cheng SL, Michaëlsson K, Larsson SC. Insulin-like growth factor-1, bone mineral density, and fracture: a Mendelian randomization study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021;106(4):e1552–e8.
Swift CG. Prevention and management of hip fracture in older patients. Practitioner. 2011;255(1743):29–33, 3.
Robinson CM, Court-Brown CM, McQueen MM, Christie J. Hip fractures in adults younger than 50 years of age. Epidemiology and results. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1995;312:238–46.
Curtain F, Grafenauer S. Plant-based meat substitutes in the flexitarian age: an audit of products on supermarket shelves. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2603.
Barrett-Connor E, Siris ES, Wehren LE, Miller PD, Abbott TA, Berger ML, et al. Osteoporosis and fracture risk in women of different ethnic groups. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(2):185–94.